Customary despatch (CD or CQD; Customary quick despatch).
Consecutive voyages (Consecs or "CVs"). When a shipowner is contracted to carry a volume of cargo he can do so using any ships or one named ship. In this latter case, the named ship is chartered, usually on one charterparty, to proceed loaded from loading port to discharging port and to return in ballast to repeat the voyage consecutively until all the agreed cargo has been transported.
Cargo battens or sparring. In older style general cargo vessels, cargo battens are fitted fore and aft horizontally inside the ship’s frames in the holds and tweendecks at a regular distance of approximately 30 centimeters to prevent contact between the cargo and the frames or shell plating. The wooden planks are fitted to the frames by means of hooks, so that they can be removed. The cargo battens keep the cargo free from moisture or sweat, which may condense on the ship’s sides.
The cargo battens are not sufficient as dunnage and in many cases extra dunnage is required.
Combined transport and bills of lading. In modern international trade and sales of goods the transport of goods by sea alone is no longer of greatest significance. Containers, in particular, have made it easier for transport of the same unit to be carried by different modes of transport. Sales of goods and delivery of goods are now commonly made on a "door-to-door" basis. "Combined transport" is the term used where goods are successively carried by at least two modes of transport, for example, by road, rail, inland waterway, sea and air.
Classification surveys. Classification societies carry out various surveys on behalf of governments, particularly in order to ensure that the vessel complies with relevant standards that are required to be met for the issue of essential certificates, such as the Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate (SAFCON).