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Subject to drydocking. This would possibly be used by a charterer in the negotiations for a time charter in order to establish that a ship would be allowed to be dry docked by the owner but would be off hire during the ducking period.

 

Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.

 

Signed under protest. If charterers or shippers object to the insertion of a certain clause in the bills of lading, the master may sign the bills of lading under protest.

Subject financing. This qualification can be used by a charterer to indicate that he is attempting to finance a transaction for which he needs a ship, for example, he wishes to purchase a quantity of bulk cargo such as sugar, and needs a ship to transport it. It can also be used by a purchaser of a ship before confirming that he can complete the purchase.

 

Seasonal ports. Ports which are only accessible to ocean shipping during part of the year, such as ports in the St. Lawrence and in the White Sea, are called seasonal ports. Because of ice, these ports and their approaches are closed for navigation between December and spring.

 

Subject to . . . Many other examples can be cited of the use of "subjects" and both owners and charterers and their middlemen, the shipbrokers, do have considerable imagination to invent and introduce new situations which are meant to influence the enforceability of a time charter or a voyage charter.

Shipper. In the U.S. Shipping Act 1984 the “shipper” was defined as: “an owner or person for whose account the ocean transportation is provided or the person to whom delivery is to be made.”

Subject to licence being granted. This term is used in negotiations as regards the chartering of a vessel at a time when owners are not free to commit their vessel for a certain employment without having obtained the approval of competent authorities. Consequently, a charterparty issued under such condition is not effective until such licence has been definitely granted.

 

Shippers’ associations.  This is a group of shippers that consolidates or distributes freight on a non-profit basis for the members of the group in order to secure volume rates or service contracts (U.S. Shipping Act 1984).

Subject shippers' approval. Like the previous restriction, this is also a "condition precedent" which can cause the fixture to fail to be binding if the shippers do not accept the ship to load the cargo. Again, also like the previous restriction, this can require a third party's approval before a charter between the owner and the charterer becomes binding.

 

Sheer. The sheer of a vessel is the longitudinal curvature of the deck from the lowest point on deck amidships. The average sheer of a general cargo vessel is about 1 per cent of the ship’s length. The sheer may increase the vessel’s reserve buoyancy. Sheer features in the assignment of load lines.

 

Straight bill of lading.  This is defined in the United States Pomerene Bills of Lading Act 1916, section 2 of which states that such a bill of lading is “A bill in which it is stated that the goods are consigned to a specified person . . .“.

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