Shippers’ associations. This is a group of shippers that consolidates or distributes freight on a non-profit basis for the members of the group in order to secure volume rates or service contracts (U.S. Shipping Act 1984).
Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.