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Shippers’ associations.  This is a group of shippers that consolidates or distributes freight on a non-profit basis for the members of the group in order to secure volume rates or service contracts (U.S. Shipping Act 1984).

Spot. This is a common term used for a vessel, which can commence loading immediately after the charter has been fixed. Consequently the vessel must have arrived at her loading port. This expression is also used in connection with cargo, which is available for immediate loading.

 

Subject approval of relevant authority. This affects the enforceability of a charter if the ship's certification and cargo handling capabilities are required to meet with official approval. For example, if a vessel is not provided with a valid "document of authorisation" it may not be allowed to load grain and the charter may depend on permission being granted to load.

 

Subject managers' approval. For the shipowner this can be a somewhat troublesome qualification because it indicates that the charterer's negotiator has to refer all the issues to a third party to make a final decision.

Suspension of laytime. The counting of laytime against a charterer can be interrupted by bad weather and for other reasons. These are "interruptions", suspensions or exceptions to laytime. If laytime is not expressly suspended by appropriate words in the charterparty, it runs continuously.

 

Shipper. In the U.S. Shipping Act 1984 the “shipper” was defined as: “an owner or person for whose account the ocean transportation is provided or the person to whom delivery is to be made.”

Subject to Government permission. This is another example, similar to "subject to shippers' approval", for a party other than the two negotiating parties, the owner and the charterer, influencing whether the parties can enter into the charter.

Statement of facts (SOF). This is the document attached to a record of calculation of laytime used (the "Timesheet") and is a record of the events that can affect the counting of laytime.

Signed under protest. If charterers or shippers object to the insertion of a certain clause in the bills of lading, the master may sign the bills of lading under protest.

Subject to insurance. This is one restriction in a charterparty that is not really relevant to the making of the formal contract in the same way that the other "subjects" are.

Stability. The stability of a ship is the tendency she possesses to return to her original position after she has heeled because of external forces. The stability of a ship mainly depends upon the metacentric height.

 

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