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Shippers’ councils.  When liner conferences were formed they represented the ocean carriers and whether or not they exercised monopoly power, they still presented a negotiating group that had strong bargaining power.

Sue and labour. When a casualty occurs, the assured, in particular the master, is bound to take such measures as may be reasonable for the purpose of averting or minimising loss or damage of ship and cargo.

Sets of bills of lading. Bills of lading are requested by shippers in a set usually of three “originals”, although in some Countries many more “original” sets may be required for different reasons, some commercial, some regulatory.

Spot market. When a shipowner or vessel operator wishes to use the vessel for tramping services, on voyage charters only, he is said to offer his ship on the spot market.

Stowage factor warranty. When a ship is chartered to load a "full and complete cargo" or a "Min/Max" quantity, the owner is interested in the actual quantity being loaded by the Charterer, especially if his freight revenue is based on the quantity.

Short form of bill of lading. These bills of lading are issued by shipping companies or agents, that is, carriers, and indicate that some or all the terms and conditions of the document which is evidence of the contract of carnage can be found in another document, the “long form of bill of lading”. This latter may be obtainable on request or can be inspected at the office of the carrier or agent.

 

Surf days. Laytime can be interrupted by bad weather and by meteorological conditions, which may interfere with loading and/or discharging.

SSW. This is an abbreviation for "Summer Salt Water" and refers to the draught of the ship when it is loaded to its summer load line in salt water, that is, in the open sea. The summer draught is the maximum draught to which the ship can be loaded depending on the "freeboards" and "loadlines" assigned to it by the assigning authorities.

 

Stevedore clause. A clause in a voyage charterparty may provide for the appointment and payment of the stevedores who carry out cargo handling.

Sub-letting. It is customary to stipulate in a time or voyage charterparty that charterers have the right of sub-letting the whole or part of the vessel on the understanding, however, that they remain responsible to the shipowners for the due fulfilment of the original charterparty. In the case of a voyage charterparty, sub-letting will probably take the form of booking other cargo by charterers.

 

Switched bills of lading. A country may not have diplomatic relations with another country but traders in one or the other may wish to have goods transported between these countries.

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