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Hague Rules and Hague-Visby Rules. These "Rules" are sets of internationally-agreed, standard conditions which apply to contracts for carriage of goods by sea ("COGS") when the contracts are covered by a bill of lading or similar "document of title" including a bill of lading issued under a charterparty or complying with a charterparty.

Hague-Visby Rules. (See Appendix IX for text of the Hague Rules and Hague-Visby Ruless amendments as implemented by the United Kingdom Carriage of goods by Sea Act 1971.)

Harter Act 1893. The late 19th and early 20th century witnessed some governments; especially those where there were more shippers than shipowners, introduce legislation which prevented carriers of goods under bills of lading from excluding all their liability.

Hatchways. The hatchways are the rectangular openings in the ship’s decks giving access to the cargo holds. The vertical plating around the hatchways is called the “hatch coaming”. The hatchways are usually closed by hatch covers. The hatchways are made weather tight.


Heating coils. Vessels carrying cargo oil in bulk may be fitted with steam heating coils in order to maintain the required temperature for pumping.

Hull clauses. Although cover is available to the shipowner for a specified voyage most ships are insured for a period of 12 months, the policy being renewed at the annual expiry date.

Hamburg Rules v. Hague-Visby Rules. A summary comparison will be attempted here based on the “Hamburg Rules” Articles and the headings given to them in the Convention. The provisions of the Hague-Visby Rules will be identified by the abbreviation “HVR” and Roman numerals.


Head charter. Most charters allow the charterer to sub-charter (or "sub-let" or "relet") the ship to other charterers.

Hague Rules. (See Appendix IX for text of the Hague Rules and Hague-Visby Rules amendments as implemented by the United Kingdom Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971.)

Hire. This is the payment for hiring a fully manned and equipped vessel. The word can also be used as payment for leasing or demising a vessel.


Hamburg Rules 1978. By the mid-19th century shipowners, who were generally a powerful group, were able to insert various protective clauses in their contracts of carriage with cargo interests.

Hamburg Rules. While the Hague Rules/Hague-Visby Rules were supposed to improve the position of the holder of a bill of lading as against the carrier of goods by sea, some cargo-generating countries considered that the protection of the shipper was insufficient.

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